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allowing Policy Planning and Innovation monitoring through Patent Information e Co-Authorship network Analyses: a Study the Tuberculosis in Brazil
enabling Policy Planning and Innovation management through Patent Information and Co-Authorship rede Analyses: der Study the Tuberculosis in Brazil alexander Guimarães Vasconcellos, carlos Medicis Morel
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Introduction

New tools and approaches ~ ~ necessary to facilitate publicamente policy planning e foster the management of creation in countries" público health systems. Come this end, an knowledge of the integrated rua in which a various actors quem produce scientific knowledge e inventions in technical areas of attention operate, whereby they estão located e how castle relate to uma another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been liked as der model ao the present pesquisar as the is a current challenge porque o Brazilian research e innovation.


Methodology

Publications about tuberculosis composed by Brazilian authors were accessed em ~ international databases, analyzed, processed com text browsing tools e networks the coauthors to be constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved são de the Brazilian national Institute of indústria Property (INPI) and the europe Patent escritório databases, through a use of internacional Patent Classification e keywords and then categorized e analyzed.


Results/Conclusions

Brazilian authorship of articles around tuberculosis jumped a partir de 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Short article production and patent filings of nacional origin have been concentrated in público universities e research establishments while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. A goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, together up to a present no one of ns applications filed have actually been granted a patent. Ns analysis of all this encontro about também publishing and patents clearly demonstrates ns importance of maintaining a continuity that Brazil"s production breakthrough policies and also government support for infrastructure jobs to it is in employed in transforming the potential the research. This policy, which already exists porque o the promotion of new products and processes that, in enhancement to bringing varied economic services to a country, will additionally contribute to reliable dealing with público health troubles affecting Brazil e the World.


Citation: Vasconcellos AG, Morel centimeter (2012) enabling Policy Planning e Innovation management through Patent Information and Co-Authorship network Analyses: a Study the Tuberculosis in Brazil. chlanie.net one 7(10): e45569. Https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045569

Editor: Dongsheng Zhou, Beijing academy of Microbiology e Epidemiology, china

Received: May 20, 2012; Accepted: August 20, 2012; Published: October 3, 2012

Funding: Funding foi ~ provided by a Department that Science and Technology (DECIT), set of health and wellness (FIOTEC no. 439 e 820); national Council porque o Scientific and Technological development (CNPq), set of Science e Technology (no. 573642/2008-7 e IA productivity Fellowship to CMM); to adjust of Education/CAPES (no. 573642/2008-7); pesquisar Foundation of the State of fluxo de janeiro (FAPERJ) (no. 573642/2008-7, post-doctoral fellowship to AGV e "Cientista dá Nosso Estado" to CMM) e Oswaldo cruz Foundation (Fiocruz). A funders had enquanto role in pesquisar design, encontro collection e analysis, decision come publish, or ready of a manuscript.

Competing interests: ns authors have claimed that enquanto competing interests exist.


Introduction

The procedure of developing novo pharmaceuticals is expensive e time consuming. The encontro extant worrying this process are the an outcome of innumerable studies suggesting that that can variety from dólares 300 million to dusky 1 billion, e take approximately 12 years to bring der new medicine to market <1>–<4>.

To resolve the público health needs of their populaces and spur a process of creation in ns health area, decision makers in both the public e private spheres should analyze innumerable components to manage a reduction that uncertainties and the optimization of results.

These activities are of privado importance in planning ns combat of the so-called neglected illness which estão exclusive to, or widespread in, emerging countries e poverty-stricken areas. These afflictions ser estar not der priority ao the pharmaceutical and biotechnology markets which are responsible for the breakthrough of medications, vaccines, e diagnostic kit <5> together they do not represent der significant revenue stream.

In this context, a country choose Brazil, i beg your pardon possesses far-reaching scientific breakthrough in this area, and has some industries e institutions capable of carrying out research e development (R&D), e both an excellent biodiversity e consumer market potential, have the right to develop the capacity come participate straight in the search para new bioactive molecules and their revolution into medications and diagnostic kits for existing diseases. Tudo things gift equal, they need to optimize a allocation that their restricted resources, and establishing público policies that articulate and coordinate ns diverse actors who make up the rede <6>, <7>.


Why tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is naquela global affliction, e the quem estimates the it affects dois billion people, which means that naquela third of the world"s population is infected with the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). A bacillus is capable of lie dormant in a human corpo for years till an individual"s immunity sistema becomes can not to ward off a infection and incapable of destroying the bacillus. While the majority of civilization with a latent infection never ever develop the active form of ns disease, between 5% e 10% of ns carriers will be afflicted by it throughout their stays <8>. In 2010 alone it is estimated that around the world over 1.45 million world died as naquela direct an outcome of tuberculosis while an additional 8.8 million developed a active kind of a disease. Although in some components of the world incidence rates ser estar falling, in those wherein poverty is prevalent e HIV/AIDS rates ser estar high the disease has actually maintained a continuous expansion rate, and it is the ater infectious an illness responsible para AIDS/HIV mortalities. This globais pandemic condition is deepening a chasm which separates rich e poor countries e further accentuating global social stress. For example, in 2009 alone, practically 10 million children were orphaned by pais mortalities resulted in by tuberculosis <9>.

In a case that Brazil, it deserve to be it was observed that a tuberculosis incidence rate has remained in decline. There to be 51.4 instances per 100,000 citizens in 1990 but by 2007, a rate had fallen come 38.4 every 100,000. Investments in tuberculosis (including medication) have additionally increased substantially, jumping from usd 9.3 million in 2000 to dissensão 69.1 million in 2008 (National Tuberculosis control Program, 2010). Despite these advances, at this time there ~ ~ around 5,000 report deaths as result of tuberculosis yearly <9>.

The therapeutic arsenal in current use ao the therapy of tuberculosis, the so-callled first-line drugs, consists of four: isoniazid, ethambutol, pirazimide, e rifampicin i m sorry were developed in 1952, 1962, 1954, and 1963 respectively. Naquela treatment cycle with these medicine takes a partir de six to ripe months, however those patients who ~ ~ unable come complete the entire treatment cycle, currently roughly 8% in Brazil <10>, may obtain resistant strains necessitating one additional dois years of therapy with a so-called second-line drugs, i m sorry usually have actually serious side-effects. It is important to emphasize that global in 2010 there were an approximated 650,000 instances of lot of drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and that M.tb has actually recently developed novo forms the resistances to recognized drugs named broadly drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR) <11>. Thus, it has actually been evidenced that ns tuberculosis drugs available ~ ~ inadequate come meet the various innate treatment difficulties which is what makes ns development of novo biomedical technologies, new drugs e new medicine regimens such naquela vital priority in global control and eradication programs <12>, <13>.

In heat with ns objectives of ns United Nations, which has set a goal of drastically reducing the tuberculosis incidence rate by 2015, number of initiatives and partnerships were developed to deal com this challenge, together as: também Alliance, introduced in 2000; FIND, Foundation ao Innovative novo Diagnostics, launched in 2003; Stop até initiative, produced by the World health Organization in 2006. They aim to provide universal access to high quality diagnostic tools and patient-centered therapy that deserve to reduce ns human suffering and socio-economic be oppressive associated com tuberculosis; protect the poor and populations fragile to TB, TB/HIV, and drug-resistant TB; and support the development of much better tools, including novo medicines and the facilitation of their rapid e efficient deployment.

There have currently been efforts to establish coordinated actions for the advancement of innovative modern technologies aimed at a combat that tuberculosis in Brazil. In the 1990s the “Fine Chemical routine to Combat Tuberculosis” (QTROP-TB) era carried fora over der ten-year period through der partnership between a Financier the Studies and Projects (FINEP) and the comunidade University of fluxo de Janeiroro (UFRJ) with ns collaboration of local industries as 1 of it key goals. Assorted activities, conducted with ns aim the establishing a strategic vision para the future, mobilized an ext than 400 specialists and dozens that institutions são de different financial sectors to much better understand future technologies ao combating tuberculosis <14>. However, ns challenge to develop new low-cost e safe drugs, treatments, e rapid diagnostic kits still persists.

From naquela more visão global point that view, it must be emphasized that segue to the Oslo handmade <15>, there are two basic families of indicators porque o science e technology, which are directly relevant to invention measurement: resources specialized to R&D and patent statistics. In addition, bibliometric e various other sorts of signs offer security information, although much of this type of info is typically not easily obtainable in an entrepreneurial environment.

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To leverage structural tasks that articulate competencies currently installed in Brazil e identify bottlenecks in a path leading em ~ the laboratory bench to sector it is fundamental to recognize some items. A most important ones are: (1) who estão the authors publishing in ns area?; (2) in i m sorry institutions are they located?; (3) which establishments seek patent protection porque o their inventions?; (4) does a correlation exist between ns Brazilian organizations that publish and the ones the apply ao patents?; e (5) what are the results of these patent applications? In enhancement to this items, that is crucial to pesquisar who is interested in this sector in Brazil and, starting com this, recognize some criteria together as possible partners, suppliers, e market niches to enter, amongst others. It is of great relevance to additionally verify: (6) who ser estar the foreign applicants? and; (7) what countries ~ ~ they from?

The target of ns present study is to respond come these questions by using two search devices that transaction with data analyses in der consolidated manner: (i) the aprender of tuberculosis co-authorship networks and (ii) naquela survey the information found in patent applications about the theme in Brazil.