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Scholars seek to understand e make logical feeling of knowledge developed through the evolution of disciplines and research themes (Ferreira, Pinto & Serra, 2014). There are many means to prepare evaluate (Paré et al., 2011). In addition to other possibilities, extant research works deserve to be measured utilizing objective methods, such as bibliometric approaches (Ferreira, Pinto & Serra, 2014). Bibliometrics can be supplied as an indicator of clinical research atuação (e.g., Phelan, ferreira & Salvador, 2002). That can also be used, in less descriptive works, to trace the intellectual structure e mainstream the current research trends (Vogel, & Güttel, 2013). In the latter case, bibliometrics deserve to be offered to conduct der more structured literature review, consisting of information and identifying patterns in a field, theme or phenomenon (Zupic, & Čater, 2015).

Bibliometric analyses are used to investigate several fields of research, including strategic management (Table 1). Ramos-Rodriguez e Ruiz-Navarro (2004) and Nerur, Rasheed and Natarajan (2008) investigated ns intellectual structure of strategic administration research. Shafique (2013) investigated ns intellectual structure of creation in a strategic perspective.

As presented in tabela 1, most studies released in famous journals predominantly use a cocitation method supported through multivariate quantitative methods. Bibliographic coupling works ~ ~ also cultivation in number.

Figure uma illustrates a difference between cocitation e bibliographic coupling (Vogel, & Güttel, 2013). Cocitation allows naquela measurement of como as frequently a pair that articles are cited together (McCain, 1990). Cocitation evaluation is a measurement that transforms over time as naquela field evolves. It is useful porque o detecting paradigmatic changes and schools of believed (Zupic, & Čater, 2015). Cocitation evaluation is naquela method the reflects the past influence of the pesquisar field. That is associated to the impact of publications. Cocitation represents ns knowledge communication of a field (Gregoire et al., 2016), e citation analysis is usually used together com cocitation analysis, together both use a references of naquela work. That identifies ns most significant works on the assumption that ns more contributions der work provides to naquela theme, ns more it will be quote (McCain, 1990).

Figure 1Cocitation and bibliographiccouplingVogel, & Güttel (2013).

Bibliometric coupling is also der measure the similarity, but is based upon thefrequency that dois documents from the sample share in ~ least uma commonreference, i.e., ns documents of der sample ~ ~ grouped in accordance with theoverlapping that its bibliographies (Vogel, & Güttel, 2013; Zupic, &Čater, 2015). A higher a number that references shared by two documents in asample, the greater the similarity between them (White, & McCain, 1998; Vogel, &Güttel, 2013). Bibliographic coupling results change slightly over time andreflect the evolução of research, fairly than its affect (Vogel, & Güttel,2013). Bibliographic coupling is useful porque o detecting tendencies and possiblepaths to der field, and is pertained to publication. Bibliographic couplingindicates the research front in a field (Zupic, & Čater, 2015). Zupic, & Čater (2015) and suggests part researchquestions to overview bibliometric researches (Table 2).

Zupic, & Čater (2015)

the aforementioned methods develop different results using empirical evidence, but estão complementary (Janerving, 2005). Vogel and Güttel (2013) imply that researchers committed to naquela research ar should not focus somente to ns mainstream of your field, but also to a “newstream”. This works deserve to be established using bibliographic coupling. Ns “newstream” might reveal “tomorrow’s classics”. In despite the of ns traditional use of cocitation methods in bibliometric research studies (Zupic, & Čater, 2015), bibliographic coupling is exciting when it concerns understanding growing fields of publication (Vogel & Güttel, 2013).

ns use of cocitation and bibliographic techniques supported by multivariate techniques does not replace ns need porque o extensive reading of functions (Zupic & Čater, 2015). Ns bibliometric method used as naquela review may be considered naquela mixed technique (see Creswell, 2014). Bibliometric methods will often reveal the structure of naquela field differently a partir de the group of traditional literature reviews, for this reason these differences need to be reconciled. Science maps provide der starting point para analytical check but ser estar not an fim in itself. Interpretation techniques in bibliometric analysis estão dependent on the focus of the paper authors ser estar writing. (Zupic, & Čater, 2015 p. 31).


Figure2 summarizes a methodological succession suggested para bibliometric studies ofcocitation e bibliographic coupling. It is an adaption of a method offered by Ramos-Rodriguez e Ruiz-Navarro (2004), with ns inclusion that thebibliographic coupling suggest by Vogel andGüttel (2013).

Figure 2Citation, cocitation andbibliographic coupling methods.Adapted fromRamos-Rodriguez e Ruiz-Navarro (2004) and Vogeland Güttel (2013).

data collection e sample

two databases estão normally used to collect information porque o bibliometric studies: net of Science and Scopus. Both are important because of their ampla coverage of social science publications, together they index the main internacional periodicals in a field. Despite a existence of works that examine naquela field through committed journals, e.g. The article that Ramos-Rodriguez and Ruiz-Navarro (2004), i m sorry examined the articles released in a Strategic Management journal using cocitation, we typically conduct a search utilizing words or terms associated to ns subject us wish to investigate. This is der sensitive step, as the words have to cover the topic but avoid gift too wide in scope, making it daunting to filter a articles porque o the duram sample. We likewise suggest making use of “*” ~ incomplete words to search porque o variations of a word. Porque o example, Vogel and Güttel, 2012 (p. 5) used a term “dynamic capabilit*” come search ns titles, abstracts and keywords of the social Science Citation table of contents of web Science in your work.

Even with carefully selected terms ao searching e refining by ar in ns database (e.g., Business e Management), over there is ns possibility that write-ups not related to the research topic will certainly be immediately selected. Come reduce ns sample bias, and guarantee the validity e reliability of a selected studies, a authors must definir the criteria ao the consist of of write-ups in your sample (Zupic, & Čater, 2015), as the filtering of the sample is not automatic. We indicate that this filtering have to be excellent by at least two of the authors individually through ns reading of the title, abstract and introduction of the works. Whenever ns authors a partir de not agree, we indicate that they must read a article together.

analysis procedures

In our procedure, us suggest ns use of the Bibexcel software for information extraction e organization (Persson, Danell, & Schneider, 2009). The programas extracts and organizes information from the databases to permit different possibilities of bibliometric estude objects (authors, keywords, references, year the publication, journal, etc.) in excel sheets. This primary details must likewise be the review by ns researchers, as a references may not be uniform. Us use the year of publication to evaluate ns growth of a theme (see figure 3 para an example) and the frequency of publishing to research citation. The software also generates ns co-specific event matrix to investigate cocitation e bibliographic coupling. This matrices have the same references in both rows e columns, with frequency that co-occurrence in a cells, which have the right to be considered naquela measure that similarity (e.g., young name & Ryan, 2010). A matrices deserve to be used as input porque o exploratory multivariate evaluation (Bazeley, 2010), in this case, either for the EFA or the rede analysis. With statistical analyses, large quantities that bibliographic data can it is in gathered, which estão more complex in uniquely qualitative reviews (Vogel, & Güttel, 2013; Zupic, & Čater, 2015).

ns citation evaluation is the primeiro procedure we imply should it is in conducted. With this procedure, ns authors deserve to identify the most cited, i.e., ns most representative, functions in ns field. Ns citation evaluation shown reflects como as frequently works estão referenced in other works (Vogel, & Güttel, 2013). The sample reduced regarding ns quantity of recommendations is done about Lotka’s legislation of bibliometrics, the very couple of articles (around 5%) would be representative of ns field (Nath, & Jackson, 1991). It must be highlighted the Bibexcel programas is used to extract a references (Pilkington, 2006). Usually, in created fields no decorrer more than 50 cited recommendations would represent between 5 and 10% that the total citations.

ns cocitation co-occurrence matrix using ns selected referrals is extracted utilizing Bibexcel programas (Persson, et al., 2009). To proceed with a analysis, we suggest the use the EFA, due to the fact that it is a most typical clustering an approach in bibliometrics (McCain, 1990; Zupic, & Čater, 2015), as shown, porque o example, in table 1. Ns matrix need to be convert into der Pearson correlation matrix used as factor analysis input. The factor analysis can be run com statistical packages such as SPSS or R. We likewise suggest considering the diagonal of a matrix as null, der simplification that will not change the outcomes (White, & Griffith, 1981; Charvet et al., 2008). We propose that a extraction of components using the gorjeta components method, com Varimax rotation (Lin, & Cheng, 2010) and Kaiser normalization, retaining coeficiente loading higher than or same to 0.40, be maintained. Us attribute the documents com cross-loadings<1> come the factor in which your loading was greater (Vogel, & Güttel, 2013). As we used an exploratory coeficiente analysis, us suggest the use of one alternative an approach to increase ns robustness of ns results (Zupic, & Čater, 2015), in this instance the rede analysis acquired using Ucinet (Borgatti et al., 2013).

Bibliographic coupling uses naquela similar co-occurrence matrix, in this case with a articles that mutual references. A procedure is equivalent to the presented para cocitation, however in this case, come cut ns sample we restrict the articles using a number that ties with the help of Ucinet rede software. As der hypothetic example, mean you have a sample that 160 documents. Evaluating them using the rede software, you maintain the documents com at least seven couplings (ties ³ 7). If this results in a matrix the 70 documents, it would represent naquela high percentage of the rude sample, e would it is in well represented graphically, enabling reading e content evaluation together with a EFA.

for both co-citation and bibliographic coupling, we have to name and present the factors through naquela detailed analysis of a works’ content. Ns argument for each factor must present the centro idea the the group of recommendations is representing. We suggest following ns recommendations of Denyer e Tranfield (2009) para systematic literature reviews.


v this script, we now present a suggested procedures porque o preparing cocitation e bibliographic bibliometric studies. This roteiro is reproduced in Portuguese in Appendix 1 of this editorial comment.

to begin, that is essential to baixar the Bibexcel software from the following link:


Bibexcel is an extractor software. It extracts a partir de your sample a desired info using SSCI abbreviation (check table 3 in step 3). A software apenas um runs in multiple sclerosis Windows. That will somente extract the first author of a works.

Ver mais: Tutorial: Como Configurar A Câmera Do Celular Para Fazer Fotos Melhores

Step 1 – net OF science (WoS) or Scopus

Access, considering Brazil, through ns CAPES portal or various other option available in your school’s digital library.

ministérios Select data base / WoS or Scopus Search

emprego Select a field you are going come search:

§ Options: topic, author; coporação, grupo of authors, editor, nameof a publication, DOI, year of publication, address.

· “topic”: search porque o the keyword in ns title, abstract e KW.

ministérios Insert words para search.

§ Boleans (And, Or, Not).

§ “*” in the keyword: enables naquela search for all variations of ns word using the asterisk.

ministérios Select the limite of a search.

§ time frame;

§ dia bases;

§ field of study;

§ form of document.

action 2 – Options para refining results

Options: research areas, types of documents, authors, editors, source title, conference title, year the publication, idioms, countries/regions, impact coeficiente (WoS - JCR).

Step 3 – Save the search

Identifying the selected articles. Click on “Add to ns marked list”, climate follow one of ns options:

a. Note individually (frame in former of every article) or

b. “All pages” (frame in a top, ns left of a page), or

c. Specify the registro to it is in sent.

Observe the field “marked list” to the quantity that the registro selected.

d. Registers com already in a list.

e. There estão no duplications the loading ao specific load of “marked list”.